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​​​​​​​​​​​​The Trusted Source for Preventive / Regenerative ​Medicine


​​​320 Santa Fe Drive, Suite 211

Encinitas, CA 92024

 760-635-1996

800-943-3331


The Hayflick limit:


The number of times a normal cell population will divide until cell division stops.The telomeres get shorter with each new cell division until they shorten to a critical length and cellular death, senescence or mutation result


Telomeres are


  • Region of repetitive nucleotide  sequences (TTAGGG) at each end of the chromatid.
  • Telomeres act as the cellular aging clock.
  • Telomere loss is a Major Cause of Cellular Aging, Inflammation and Mutation


Somatic cells


  • Make up > 99% of the cells in the adult body
  • Have little or no telomerase and telomeres shorten as we get older.


Telomere Length Shortening:


  • Conception: Telomeres start out 15,000 base pairs (bp) long.
  • By Birth the embryo has divided so many times that telomere length is down to 10,000 bp.
  • Over the rest of our lifetime we lose another 5,000 to 7,000 bp.
  • When telomere length gets to 3-5,000 bp, the genome is no longer protected from mutations, the cell can no longer divide, becomes senescent, metabolism slows down, and the cell dies.
  • Senescence-Associated Secretory Phenotype - inflammation


Telomeres are the Biological Clock of Aging


  • Organs deteriorate as more and more of their cells die off or enter cellular senescence.
  • Shortened telomeres impair immune function that might also increase cancer susceptibility  
  • Telomere length represents biological age as opposed to chronological age


What shortens telomeres?​


  • Aging (except in immortal animals)
  • Oxidative stress
  • Inflammation
  • Lifestyle factors
  • Homocysteine
  • Hormone deficiencies


​Telomerase

  • Maintains the telomere length
  • Promotes genomic integrity , proliferation, and lifespan
  • Protects the mitochondria from oxidative stress
  • Confers resistance to apoptosis
  • Important for the survival of non-mitotic, highly active cells such as neurons


To make telomeres longer…


  • Activate Telomerase
    • Endogenous enzyme
    • Stabilizes telomere length
    • Adds DNA repeats (TTAGGG ) onto the telomeric ends of the chromosomes
    • Compensates for the erosion of telomeres when cells divide

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It all fits together


  • Everything we are trying to do for optimal health and quality of life has a telomere/telomerase connection
  • Avoiding and controlling oxidative stress
  • Nutrition
  • Meditation
  • Exercise
  • Controlling Mental Stress, environmental toxicity, radiation exposure
  • Optimizing hormones
  • Optimizing Nitric Oxide (NO)
  • Activate Telomerase







Telomeres

​​​​​​​​​California HealthSpan Institute      

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