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California HealthSpan Institute
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The Hayflick limit:
The number of times a normal cell population will divide until cell division stops.The telomeres get shorter with each new cell division until they shorten to a critical length and cellular death, senescence or mutation result
- Region of repetitive nucleotide sequences (TTAGGG) at each end of the chromatid.
- Telomeres act as the cellular aging clock.
- Telomere loss is a Major Cause of Cellular Aging, Inflammation and Mutation
- Make up > 99% of the cells in the adult body
- Have little or no telomerase and telomeres shorten as we get older.
Telomere Length Shortening:
- Conception: Telomeres start out 15,000 base pairs (bp) long.
- By Birth the embryo has divided so many times that telomere length is down to 10,000 bp.
- Over the rest of our lifetime we lose another 5,000 to 7,000 bp.
- When telomere length gets to 3-5,000 bp, the genome is no longer protected from mutations, the cell can no longer divide, becomes senescent, metabolism slows down, and the cell dies.
- Senescence-Associated Secretory Phenotype - inflammation
Telomeres are the Biological Clock of Aging
- Organs deteriorate as more and more of their cells die off or enter cellular senescence.
- Shortened telomeres impair immune function that might also increase cancer susceptibility
- Telomere length represents biological age as opposed to chronological age
What shortens telomeres?
- Aging (except in immortal animals)
- Oxidative stress
- Lifestyle factors
- Hormone deficiencies
- Maintains the telomere length
- Promotes genomic integrity , proliferation, and lifespan
- Protects the mitochondria from oxidative stress
- Confers resistance to apoptosis
- Important for the survival of non-mitotic, highly active cells such as neurons
To make telomeres longer…
- Activate Telomerase
- Endogenous enzyme
- Stabilizes telomere length
- Adds DNA repeats (TTAGGG ) onto the telomeric ends of the chromosomes
- Compensates for the erosion of telomeres when cells divide
It all fits together
- Everything we are trying to do for optimal health and quality of life has a telomere/telomerase connection
- Avoiding and controlling oxidative stress
- Controlling Mental Stress, environmental toxicity, radiation exposure
- Optimizing hormones
- Optimizing Nitric Oxide (NO)
- Activate Telomerase
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